Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Paper Towels Versus Hand Dryers

A predicament of personal preference for removing moisture from hands.

  For the 71 percent of Americans that a recent survey from SCA Tissue says actually wash after using the restroom — not just the quick rinse-and-dash, that doesn’t count — a solution is needed for removing moisture from their hands.Hands Water
Hotels and high-end boutiques don’t much factor into this discussion because they tend to have linens to complete the handwashing process.
However, in other commercial locations like educational institutions, healthcare facilities and government-affiliated, state-owned or municipality-run complexes, staffs and other building occupants know the pros and cons of an age-old issue have been weighed out: Paper towels versus hand dryers.
After visiting handwashing stations or restrooms, their hand drying option — paper towels of various fiber contents, hand dryers in numerous configurations or the option of both — hinges on an important conversation that every individual in a supervisory or managerial level has had or absolutely needs to have with key personnel in the custodial, janitorial or maintenance department.
The predominant pair of problem-solvers presiding over this predicament are paper towels and hand dryers.Sustainability Recycling Globe Image
Some facilities managers provide their patrons with a choice; they both stock their restrooms with paper towels and have hand dryers installed.
Other decision-makers have taken choice out of the equation, selecting either paper towels or hand dryers as the exclusive drying option in their restrooms.
Price, maintenance and environmental footprint are generally factored into the selection process, as each has an influence on budgets, workloads and sustainability goals.
Money WadBut, what is often not factored into the equation is what restroom patrons want to use and what frontline professionals want to maintain.
And, given that this is a service business of the utmost competitiveness — budgets are being cut, contracts are being underbid and entire operations are being outsourced to save money, remain competitive and increase profits — customer satisfaction is principal.
“Offering only paper towels or an air dryer in a restroom isn’t patron-friendly,”states Samantha Mehrotra of the Cascades Tissue Group.
Industry research says customers want a hand drying choice, claiming it is important to have paper towels and hand dryers as drying options.
A spokesperson for Kimberly-Clark Professional (KCP) says, “People use paper towels for more than drying their hands; paper towels are used to touch door handles and water faucets, wipe faces and spot clean clothing — tasks that an air dryer simply can’t do.”
Tit For Tat
It can be surmised that providing restroom patrons with a choice is preferred but, if that is not an option in your facility, which drying route do you go?
Paper Towel DispenserAccording to Bill Gagnon, director of marketing and key accounts for Excel Dryer, a quality high-speed hand dryer can eliminate the need for a paper towel dispenser in most cases, cutting waste as well as the expense of stocking and maintaining the dispenser.
“Increasingly, high-speed hand dryers are being specified to handle the bulk of hand drying needs in a restroom,” notes Gagnon. “For example, a facility that may have previously installed three or four paper towel dispensers may choose to install one to help augment the personal care needs of restroom patrons. This option meets the needs of patrons and the facility managers who wish to reduce maintenance, waste and create a cleaner, hands-free environment.”
As convenient as hand dryers are, it is difficult to dismiss research championing the hygienic properties of drying with paper towels.
Mehrotra proclaims, “A study conducted earlier this year in part by Dyson Ltd., makers of the Dyson Airblade hand dryer, conceded that ‘rubbing with paper towels appeared to be the best means of reducing bacterial loading on the fingertips.’”
The findings of the Dyson study are consistent with the results of an earlier research effort spearheaded the University of Westminster in London.
“The Westminster study found that, when participants used paper towels to dry their hands, the number of bacteria was reduced by up to 77 percent whereas air dryers actually increased the number of most bacteria on hands — up to 254 percent more for warm air dryers and 42 percent more for jet air dryers,” continues Mehrotra.Image courtesy of Dyson Ltd.
As one might expect, however, research has been conducted for both camps, and compelling arguments can be made regarding the superiority of either choice of drying apparatus.
Gagnon argues that, because of the dry atmosphere caused by constant heating, bacteria counts are often two to four times lowerinside a hand dryer than on other surfaces in the restroom, such as sinks, doorknobs and soap dispensers.
And, a pertinent study published in the December 2011 edition of the American Journal of Infection Control notes that bacteria was found on unused paper towels, meaning possible contamination can be spread unknowingly by some potential users of paper towels.
In response to a recent Cleaning & Maintenance Management magazine poll, DeEon Phillippi, building maintenance supervisor for Century College, offered the following: “Hand dryers leave less of a mess on the floor. They also reduce other costs such as those associated with removing the refuse from restrooms, the cost of liners and overall waste removal costs.”
Countering Common Points
Countless studies, surveys and research undertakings can be cited and sourced to argue that one hand drying option is superior to another, but the truth is that the method chosen is more of a personal preference than anything.
Some say that paper towels add to deforestation and simply create refuse as an outdated hand drying option.
“Unlike paper towels, hand dryers leave no refuse behind, which can carry bacteria,” points out Gagnon.
To remedy this, many manufacturers now offer their paper towels with various levels of recycled content to show their commitment to source reduction.
Aside from the refuse issue, select paper towels are now being made with antimicrobial treatments that inhibit germ and bacterial replication.
“New innovations in paper manufacturing over the last several years have made it so recycled fiber sources can be produced to be just as soft, fluffy and absorbent as virgin fiber sources,” quips Mehrotra.Paper Towel Roll
Some manufacturers are looking towards third-party validation to prove their environmental commitments and are choosing raw materials from sustainably-harvested forests and incorporating non-tree fibers into their offerings.
“It’s the next step on our sustainability journey — one that reinforces our commitment to ‘Reduce Today, Respect Tomorrow,’” asserts a KCP spokesperson. “Today, alternative fiber products use up to 20 percent fewer trees than conventional products.”
It is said that air dryers simply blow germs and bacteria around the restroom.
To counter this, some makers of hand dryers have fitted their machines with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that remove 99.97 percent of potentially present bacteria and particulates that measure .3 microns or larger from the air.
High-powered Hand DryerResponding to a Cleaning & Maintenance Management magazine poll on hand drying, Alan Goytowski, custodial services supervisor for the University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, opines, “I’m voting for paper. True, there is debris on the floor and more trees cut down. But, there is not the spray of soiled water against everything near the dryer.”
Others claim that paper towels do not penetrate irregularities in skin, leaving them moist.
Although paper towels are able to dry hands through physical means, scouring away fomites and other particulates, clinical research has shown that the warm air of heated air dryers can “penetrate all the crevices in the skin, whereas absorbent towels may not reach such areas, even though the skin appears dry.”
Hygiene Is The Important Discussion
An estimated 80 percent of infections in the U.S. are transmitted by hand contact.
And, according to the Mayo Clinic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), handwashing is the key to hygiene — regardless of which drying method is chosen.
“As a society, we’re lazy when it comes to hand hygiene,” offers Mehrotra. “Consider that post-H1N1, 54 percent of people aren’t washing their hands often or more effectively than they did before the pandemic started. The beauty of innovation is that it compensates for peoples’ imperfect hand hygiene habits and prevents them from getting sicker.”
This is why, regardless of whether you and your building occupants prefer paper towels or hand dryers, all thoughts, opinions and supporting data needs to be placed on the discussion table.
Only with all of the facts and figures can an informed decision — one that takes into account hygiene, costs, maintenance, sustainability and occupant satisfaction — be made that best meets the drying needs of those in your facility while augmenting your economic and environmental goals.

Source: cmmonline

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

The 12 Steps to Safe Floors This Holiday Season

  CINCINNATI — As the holiday season approaches, colder temperatures and inclement weather will descend on many regions in the U.S., which can quickly turn silver bells into operational hell for restaurant operators who do not account for the increase in patrons and precipitation in their floor maintenance program, according to a press release.

wetfloorTo help restaurant operators and risk managers maximize the safety of their safe floor efforts, Cintas Corporation, a nationwide leader in safe floor programs, today announced 12 steps for holiday floor safety, the release stated.

Cintas will discuss these steps and other seasonal considerations for floor safety during its upcoming webinar "Safe Floors throughout the Year" scheduled on November 28 at 2 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST), the release noted.

"Mix holiday parties with seasonal precipitation and you have a recipe for an injury if your restaurant doesn't have a safe floor program in place. By using our checklist, restaurants operators can help protect patrons and their reputation," said David Collette, director of marketing, Cintas Foodservice.

According to the release, the 12 steps that should be adhered to include:
  • Protect entryways. Every exterior door should have several steps of matting leading into and out of it.
  • Position mops for easy access.
  • Assign someone to oversee the effort. Accountability plays a significant role in the success of a safe floor program.
  • Dedicate a porter to clean immediate spills. During high traffic periods, assign someone to the task of spill cleanup.
  • Clear exterior walkways.
To read the 12 steps in their entirety, click here.

Friday, November 9, 2012

Strategies to Prevent the Flu in the Workplace

CINCINNATI — To help eliminate flu-causing organisms, the Cintas Corporation has announced five disinfection strategies for targeting germ hotspots, according to a press release.

touchpointsBy identifying the main areas where viruses and bacteria thrive, the tips help facility managers focus disinfection efforts, keeping building occupants safe and healthy throughout the flu season, the release stated.

"People often contract the flu by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching their own mouth or nose. By focusing cleaning programs on specific areas throughout the building known to harbor bacteria, facility managers can do their part to keep guests and employees healthy," said Dave Mesko, senior marketing director for Cintas.

According to the release, Cintas identifies the following germ hotspot disinfection tips:

Hotspot disinfection tip #1: Disinfect high-touch surfaces — To reduce illness, ensure that high-touch surfaces such as door handles, desks, keyboards and phones are disinfected regularly.

Hotspot disinfection tip #2: Deep clean restrooms — The buildup of harmful germs in restrooms can easily transfer to guest hands and cause illness.

Hotspot disinfection tip #3: Be mindful of matting — While matting can be an effective method to trap and contain germs, soiled floor mats can be a breeding ground for harmful bacteria and microbes.

Hotspot disinfection tip #4:  Don’t forget flooring — To reduce overall bacteria levels throughout the facility, use clean mops and tools specifically designed to prevent cross contamination by separating dirty water from clean water.

Hotspot disinfection tip #5: Promote hand washing — Encouraging frequent hand washing is the single most effective method for reducing the spread of illness among guests and employees.

"The flu season is a great time to revamp cleaning and disinfection policies. By increasing cleaning frequencies and promoting hand washing, facility managers can do their part in preventing the spread of the flu," Mesko added. 

Click here to read the release in its entirety.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Custodial Link to Health & Safety is Universal

NORTH LANARKSHIRE, SCOTLAND — A Scottish union is accusing the North Lanarkshire Council of putting the safety of students at risk by cutting certain school services, according to STV Cumbernauld.

north lanarkshireThe council has plans to cut £1.5m from janitorial services, a move the union says would reduce the health and safety of students, the article stated.

"These proposals would reduce health and safety within schools in North Lanarkshire due to cover being stretched thinner and opening and closing times of school buildings being reduced,” said John Mooney, branch secretary of Unison North Lanarkshire.

"The council is not looking at the bigger picture in terms of the vital service that these members provide. Reductions in line with the proposals would mean that no one would be in schools early to ensure that playgrounds are salted in times of bad weather or to check that the classrooms are safe for pupils arriving,” Mooney added.

According to the article, faculty in Cumbernauld schools see janitors as an essential part of school life, ensuring both function and safety.

Click here to read the article in its entirety.


Monday, October 8, 2012

Influenza Expected to Kill Half a Million People

BLOUNTVILLE, TN — Tennessee Health Commissioner Dr. John Dreyzehner is sending out a call to action for people to get inoculated with a shot to prevent influenza, according to the Bristol Herald Courier.

Annually, influenza kills about 500,000 people around the world, and some 20,000 Americans under the age of five are admitted to treatment centers because of the virus, the story stated.Nasal Flu Shot

According to the story, those most vulnerable are the elderly and the young, notably those with suppressed immune systems, heart disease and lung disease.

Dreyzehner stressed that, if healthy individuals receive a flu shot, they can help protect vulnerable populations and curb the spread of influenza, the story noted.

Infection Awareness Should Not Take A Summer Vacation

Dr. Randy Wykoff, dean of the College of Public Health at East Tennessee State University, said, “A lot of people don’t take this disease as seriously as they should.”

Despite the severity of influenza, less than half of the U.S. population opted for inoculation last year — either the traditional shot or the new nasal spray — last year, the story added.

Click here to read the complete article.

Sunday, August 5, 2012

Olympic Games could breed Olympic germs

LONDON — The 2012 London Olympic Games will bring together residents, athletes and visitors from more than 200 countries, making the need for vigilance against germs a daunting task, according to The Star.

The likelihood of a serious health emergency is slim to none, but it does still exist; the worse-case scenario being the emergence of a new, readily transmitted infectious disease, the article stated.

According to the article, just a few weeks ago, the entire Australian women's water polo team was quarantined after several members were diagnosed with whooping cough, an incident that proved that anything can happen, and that health officials need to be ready for any worrisome situation.

"Our risk assessments indicate that there's only a slight increased risk of infectious disease such as diarrhea and vomiting or respiratory illness," said Brian McCloskey, a member of England's Health Protection Agency (HPA).

"And the reality is that serious outbreaks are uncommon. Our message for everyone attending the Olympics is to enjoy the games and ensure they are up-to-date with routine vaccinations as recommended by their home country," McClosky added.

An article that was published in The Lancet Infectious Disease Journal this year suggested that mass gatherings such as the Olympics have "potentially serious implications to health, security and economic activity worldwide," the article noted.

It is also pointed out that "exchanged pathogens can travel back to different countries when visitors journey home, while lingering diseases can remain at the host site," the article added.

Click here to read the complete article.

Saturday, August 4, 2012

Disinfection Tips to Remember

Recent outbreaks of whooping cough in several U.S. states have prompted representatives of Spray Nine to release key tips to ensure proper disinfection to contain the disease's spread, according to a press release.

"Despite the growing use of 'green' cleaning products, there's still the need for traditional disinfectants to further ensure dangerous germs are destroyed during the cleaning process," said Cary Zelich, marketing manager for Spray Nine, an ITW Permatex brand.

"Even in cases where legislatures are promoting green cleaning at state-run schools, cleaning professionals should note that most legislation doesn't limit the use or distribution of antimicrobial disinfectants or sanitizers," Zelich added.

According to the release, there are several tips that those involved in cleaning programs need to keep top-of-mind in combating the spread of the disease:

• Know the difference between cleaning and disinfecting
• Provide on-site training on a continual basis
• Concentrate on disinfecting areas that may normally get overlooked.

In regard to the spread of whooping cough, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says parents should ensure that their child is up-to-date with the whooping cough or pertussis vaccine to have full protection against the disease, the release stated.

The CDC also recommends adults, especially pregnant women who will be around small children, should get a booster shot of the vaccine to avoid spreading the disease to infants too young for the first dose of the vaccine — which is given at two months, the release noted.

Click here to read the complete release.

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Poor Indoor Air Quality Found to Have Economic Impact

What is poor indoor air quality really costing you — and your employees?

Author: The GREENGUARD Environmental Institute
Oftentimes, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is associated with potential health issues — and rightfully so. But, while looking at the adverse health effects, you'll also need to look at how poor health impacts the economy.

One of the best studies to date on quantifying potential health and productivity benefits from providing good indoor environmental conditions — IAQ, thermal and lighting — was conducted by William Fisk, head of the Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and his colleagues. 

Their findings reflect an analysis of a large number of earlier studies.

See Table 1 for a summary of the findings.

Fisk et al. concluded: "Improving air quality would not only lead to significant reductions in illness but would have a direct positive impact on worker productivity. … The potential direct increase in office workers' performance was estimated to range between 0.5 percent and 5 percent."

Table 1
Potential Annual Health Care Savings And Productivity Gains From Improving Indoor Environments (Fisk and Rosenfeld 1997).
Source of Productivity Gain Potential Annual Health Benefits in U.S. Potential U.S. Annual Savings on Productivity Gain (1996 $U.S.)
Reduced respiratory disease 16 to 37 million avoided illnesses $6 to $14 billion
$23 to $54 per person
Reduced allergies and asthma 10 to 30 percent decrease in symptoms in 53 million people with allergies and 16 million people with asthma $2 to $4 billion
$20 to $80 per person (with allergies)
Reduced sick building syndrome symptoms 20 to 50 percent reduction in symptoms experienced frequently by 15 million workers $10 to $30 billion
$300 per office worker
Improved worker performance from changes in thermal environment and lighting Not applicable $20 to $160 billion
They also estimated the annual economic costs of common respiratory illnesses (reported in 1996 dollars):
  • 180 million lost workdays
  • 120 million additional days of restricted activity
  • $36 billion ($140 per person) in health care costs
  • $70 billion ($270 per person) total cost.
The ASHRAE Journal published a summary of this study and Fisk et al.'s findings as a part of a six-part series on the relationship of indoor air quality to health, comfort and productivity.

Monday, July 2, 2012

Men's offices harbor more bacteria

New research shows that men's offices typically contain more bacteria than those of their female counterparts, according to CBC News.

Scientists admit that they know little about the different types of bacteria and viruses that grow where we live, work and play, and that understanding them could be helpful, the article stated.

According to the article, Scott Kelley, a biology professor at San Diego State University and his co-authors surveyed human skin, nasal, oral and intestinal bacteria from 90 offices in New York, San Francisco and Tucson, Arizona; five surfaces were swabbed in each office including chairs, phones and computer keyboards.

The researchers found that men's offices contained up to 20 percent more bacteria than women's offices, the article noted.

"The differences between contamination levels in the offices of men and women may be explained by differences in hygiene," the study's authors said.

"Men are known to wash their hands and brush their teeth less frequently than women and are commonly perceived to have a more slovenly nature," the study added.

Office phones were abundant in the harmless bacteria.
(Charlie Neibergall/Associated Press)
Click here to read the complete article.

Thursday, May 31, 2012

The Benefits of Going Green

Green works for the planet. Green works for your business.

Green cleaning — cleaning to protect health without harming the environment — is in the best interests of the eco-system, your business and your employees. Green business ideas and green business initiatives are quickly becoming a normal part of everyday business, making it imperative that businesses develop and implement their own green policies and start doing their part to create a "carbon-neutral" business.
One easy eco-friendly measure that can have a significant impact is using green cleaning products that eliminate harmful and toxic chemicals. There are now many eco-friendly solutions available for use with laundry, on specific needs like grease and stains, and other heavy-duty industrial cleaning jobs. Whether you are just cleaning your office, your restaurant kitchen facility or a manufacturing plant, using natural cleaning products not only allows your business to do its part in helping to improve the environment, it allows your building management team to make a statement that they care first and foremost about their customers and staff.
Survey Says Green Cleaning is Best
A recent survey* showed that seven out of 10 consumers prefer to patronize a business that demonstrates a commitment to the environment. When it comes to cleaning, 68 percent of business owners would prefer for their business to be cleaned with green products, and 78 percent of office workers agree that, when possible, businesses should use green cleaners instead of conventional ones.
"Today's business owners want green cleaning that's also effective," added Grabowski. "And when it comes to powerful clean, the brands they trust are Green Works and Clorox."
The survey also showed:
  • 67% of office employees prefer their office to be cleaned with Green Works® products over conventional cleaners
  • 58% of business owners would feel better if their janitors/housekeepers were working with Green Works® products instead of conventional cleaners
  • 58% of cleaning professionals prefer to clean with Green Works® products over conventional cleaners.
Going green does work for the planet and for your business. By providing all-natural cleaning products for your employees, you improve their health, productivity, retention and morale. That translates into real financial savings over time.

A recent survey* showed that guests prefer hotels that care about environmental sustainability and practice green cleaning, as well. The survey reported that:
  • 70% consumers prefer to patronize businesses that demonstrate commitment to the environment
  • 84% of travelers agree that it would be better if hotels used green cleaners instead of harsh chemicals
  • 57% said they prefer to stay in a hotel that uses green cleaners over one that doesn't
  • 71% of hotel guests would prefer to stay in a hotel cleaned with Green Works natural products

*Vatoca Partners Survey, February 2009. 
Read entire CMMOnline article here

Friday, May 25, 2012

The Science Of Disinfectants

Why they work and what you should know to maximize their effectiveness.

We often take for granted the action of disinfectants without fully understanding how they work.
Not only are there differences in the action of the antimicrobial ingredients, but there are also differences depending on the concentration of chemical that is used that can impact the action of a chemical agent or physical process.
In general, disinfectants have three mechanisms of action or ways that they affect or kill an organism: Cross-linking, coagulating, clumping; structure and function disruption; and oxidizing.


Mechanism of action: Cross-linking, coagulating, clumping.
Like many disinfectants, alcohols are generally considered to be non-specific antimicrobials because of their many toxic effects.

Alcohols cause cell proteins to clump and lose their function.
Specifically, the cell membranes lose their structure and collapse, thereby killing it.
The alcohol must be diluted with water for the optimum effect, as proteins are not denatured as readily with straight alcohol.

Alcohol is also effective in inhibiting spore germination by affecting the enzymes necessary for germination.
However, once it's removed, spores can recover, so it's not considered a sporicidal.


Mechanism of action: Oxidizing.

Chlorine is a very common disinfectant used in a wide variety of cleaning solutions and applications — even in drinking water — because, even in very small amounts, it exhibits fast bactericidal action.

Chlorine works by oxidizing proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
Hypochlorous acid, which is a weak acid that forms when chlorine is dissolved in water, has the most effect on the bacterial cell, targeting some key metabolic enzymes and destroying the organism.

Chlorine compounds have also been shown to affect surface antigen in enveloped viruses and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as well as structural alterations in non-enveloped viruses.

Very few chemicals are considered sporicidal; however, chlorine compounds in higher concentrations have been shown to kill bacterial spores such as Clostridium difficile (C. diff).

Peroxygen Compounds

Mechanism of action: Oxidizing.

Both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid are peroxygen compounds of great importance in infection control because, unlike like most disinfectants, they are unaffected by the addition of organic matter and salts.

In addition, the formation of the hydroxyl radical, a highly reactive ion that occurs as peroxygen compounds encounter air, is lethal to many species of bacteria because it is a strong oxidant.
Being highly reactive, the hydroxyl radical attacks essential cell components and cell membranes, causing them to collapse.

Peroxygen compounds also kill spores by removing proteins from the spore coat, exposing its core to the lethal disinfectant.


Mechanism of action: Cross-linking, coagulating, clumping.
Phenol and its derivatives exhibit several types of bactericidal action.
At higher concentrations, the compounds penetrate and disrupt the cell wall and make the cell proteins fall out of suspension.

One of the first things to occur is stopping essential enzymes.
The next level in the damage to the bacteria is the loss in the membrane's ability to act as a barrier to physical or chemical attack.

Though phenols can act at the germination — beginning of growth — stage of bacterial spore development, this effect is reversible, making them unsuitable as sporicides.

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

Mechanism of action: Structure and function disruption.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) are some of the most widely used disinfectants today because of their broad spectrum effectiveness.

Quaternary ammonium compounds work by denaturing the proteins of the bacterial or fungal cell, affecting the metabolic reactions of the cell and causing vital substances to leak out of the cell, causing death.
Because quats are a charged particle, something to consider is "quat absorption," which is when quat molecules are attracted and bound to anionic — negatively charged — fabric surfaces.

For example, if a pail contains the correct dilution of a disinfectant with an active ingredient concentration of 800 parts per million (PPM), that concentration could be reduced by as much as half after a cotton wipe is placed in the solution and allowed to soak for 10 minutes.

Some ways to solve quat absorption include using wipes made from nonreactive textiles and increasing the solution concentration to compensate for absorption.

The Right Stuff

While each of the chemicals described above are effective in certain applications, formulations are also made more or less effective by their other ingredients.

In particular, surfactants are often important ingredients to disinfectant cleaning solutions because they achieve uniform wetting of surfaces and frequently help with cleaning.

Something to consider is that some surfactants contain positively-charged ions, which can inactivate negatively-charged antimicrobials like quaternary ammonium compounds by binding with them, making them less effective against a microbe.

In contrast, low surfactant concentrations may improve the microbiocidal effect.
The reason for the improved action is thought to be an accumulation of the agent within micelles of the surfactant, which absorb to the microorganism's cell wall.

The active substance thus becomes enriched at the cell wall, which means that a lower dose is required for the desired effect.

While chemistry is important, even the best formulations will not be effective if applied incorrectly or inconsistently.

Other processes and interventions must also be in place to ensure that all areas are cleaned thoroughly each time.

Understanding how different chemistries work can help you evaluate which ones are best suited to your facilities' needs. 

Author: Kirsten Thompson, Ecolab Healthcare